CALCULATION

To understand how rankings scores are calculated, please find below the explanation for the basic process:

- We use the ratio as the original input;
- We apply normalization to all institutions’ ratios to standardize the input, which will generate a Z Score for each institution;
- We scale the Z Score for all the institutions from 0-100.

Ratio – Input – Z Score – Scaled Score

PUBLICATION OF SCORES AND RANKS

Every institution has a published rank. It is either specific, joint, or in a band.

All indicator *ranks* are published and are specific up to a certain point and then banded thereafter.

All indicator *scores* are displayed for all ranked institutions.

*Overall scores* are displayed to a certain point (e.g. Rank 500 in our World University Ranking) and hidden thereafter.